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Valuation Service

Valuation Service

Business valuation is required for merger and acquisitions (M&A), management strategic planning, financial reporting purposes, which requires good knowledge and understanding on accounting standard, regulatory requirement, technical knowhow and relevant experiences. Valuation includes business valuations, share valuation, financial instruments, intangible asset valuations and purchase price allocations (PPA).

Our professional service

Our professional team has in-depth knowledge and understanding of the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) and valuation techniques. We provide customized services and practical solutions to our clients in identifying potential opportunities, exploring values and highlighting risks in order to assist our clients to reach their goals. We can cover different industries, ranging from traditional businesses such as Healthcare, Food & Beverage, Retail, Manufacturing, Marketing, Utilities, Real Estates, Mining, Financial Institutions, etc. to emerging industries with disruptive business models such as Technology, Media, and Telecommunications (TMT).

Business Valuation

A business valuation is a general process of determining the economic value of a whole business or company unit. Business valuation can be used to determine the fair value of a business for a variety of reasons, including sale value, establishing partner ownership, taxation, and even divorce proceedings. Owners will often turn to professional business evaluators for an objective estimate of the value of the business.

Share Valuation

Valuation of shares is the process of knowing the value of a company’s shares. Share valuation is done based on quantitative techniques and share value will vary depending on the market demand and supply. The share price of the listed companies which are traded publicly can be known easily. But w.r.t private companies whose shares are not publicly traded, valuation of shares is really important and challenging.

Financial Instruments

Financial Instruments are contracts for monetary assets that can be purchased, traded, created, modified or settled. There are typically three types of Financial Instruments, cash instruments, derivative instruments and foreign exchange instruments. Valuation includes determining the Fair Value of equity instruments, debt instruments, derivatives (option and future contracts) and embedded derivatives (convertible bonds / preference shares). Financial Instruments may require valuation for commercial, financial reporting, Tax or regulatory purposes.

Intangible Asset Valuation

An intangible asset is a non-physical asset. Examples of intangible assets include patents, trademarks, copyrights, goodwill, brand recognition, customer lists, and proprietary technology.

Frequently, a company's intangible assets are valued by subtracting a firm's book value from its market value. However, opponents of this method argue that because market value constantly changes, the value of intangible assets also changes, making it an inferior measure.

On the other hand, the calculated intangible value takes additional factors into consideration, such as the company's pretax earnings, the company's average return on tangible assets, and the industry's average return on tangible assets.

Finding a company’s intangible asset values involves steps such as:

Calculate the average pretax earnings for the past three years.

Calculate the average year-end tangible assets for the past three years.

Calculate the company's return on assets (ROA).

Calculate the industry average ROA for the same three-year period as in Step 2.

Calculate excess ROA by multiplying the industry average ROA by the average tangible assets calculated in Step 2. Subtract the excess return from the pretax earnings from Step 1.

Calculate the three-year average corporate tax rate and multiply it by the excess return. Deduct the result from the excess return.

Calculate the net present value (NPV) of the after-tax excess return. Use the company's cost of capital as a discount rate.

Purchase Price Allocation (PPA)

In acquisition accounting, purchase price allocation is a practice in which an acquirer allocates the purchase price into the assets and liabilities of the target company acquired in the transaction. Purchase price allocation is an important step in accounting reporting after the completion of a merger or acquisition.

The currently accepted accounting standards, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), require employing the purchase price allocation method for any type of business combination deal, including both mergers and acquisitions. Note that past accounting standards required purchase price allocation only in acquisition deals.

Purchase price allocation primarily consists of the following components:

Net identifiable assets

Net identifiable assets refer to the total value of assets of an acquired company, less the total amount of its liabilities. Note that the “identifiable assets” are those with a certain value at a given point in time and whose benefits can be recognized and reasonably quantified. Essentially, the net identifiable assets represent the book value of assets on the balance sheet of the acquired company. It is important to understand that identifiable assets may include both tangible and intangible assets.


A write-up is an adjusting increase to the book value of an asset that is made if the asset’s carrying value is less than its fair market value. The write-up amount is determined when an independent business valuation specialist completes the assessment of the fair market value of assets of a target company.


Essentially, goodwill is the amount paid in excess of the target company’s net value of its assets minus its liabilities. Goodwill is calculated as a difference between the purchase price and the total fair market value of assets and liabilities of an acquired company.

From an acquirer’s perspective, goodwill is critical in its accounting reporting because both US GAAP and IFRS require a company to re-evaluate all recorded goodwill at least once a year and record impairment adjustments if necessary. Goodwill is not depreciated but is sometimes amortized over time.

Note that acquisition-related costs – including, but not limited to, various legal, advisory, or consulting fees – are not considered in purchase price allocation. According to accounting standards, an acquirer must expense the costs whenever they have been charged while the corresponding services have been provided.